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In Apology 23, there are further accounts of his strange behavior:. The reader of the Apology now finds himself at that point of an authentic trial. This task was not very difficult for the victorious plaintiff of this trial, as he had already called for the death penalty in his written lawsuit The already condemned person had the right to ask for another kind of sentence, but that was all about the amount of punishment. At this point of the trial, an acquittal was out of the question, even if the defendant was truly innocent.

Banquet : Apologie de Socrate

If the accuser had requested the death penalty, the already convicted person could only demand an equivalent punishment in order to save his life. For the actual situation in the trial of Socrates, this meant that the defendant had to provide a sentence, which was equivalent to the required death sentence of the accuser However, according to Xenophon, Socrates did the complete opposite of what Xenophon mentions almost casually.

In the Crito , however, he treats the intentions of the protagonist and eponym explicitly. The following fictitious 19 conversation depicts a discussion between Crito, Socrates and the personified laws. Thus escape would repay wrong with wrong and violate a Socratic principle. Accordingly the words spoken by Crito in 45a to 46a in his attempt to persuade Socrates to escape, were originally spoken by Aeschines of Sphettos, but because of hostility towards Aeschines, Plato assigned them to Crito This strengthens the presumption that Xenophon has used information offered in the Crito while writing his Apology.

From a chronological point of view, this possibility seems probable as well, because the Crito has often been seen as the first dialogue Plato had written before the Apology.

Even within the Platonic works themselves, there are some points of reference 26 that can permit some true statements about the chronology Although it cannot clearly be proven, a temporal proximity to the Platonic Apology to which the Crito is closely related, seems quite plausible on the basis of two allusions A definite chronological classification, however, is not possible But it is quite possible that the Crito was written at the same time as the Apology Xenophon reports in this passage from a short conversation between Socrates and Apollodorus:.

The content of this formulation, however, sounds strange, as Socrates had been condemned to death, but at this point of the Apology , his execution is not imminent. Suspicion is warranted that Xenophon did not incorporate the present episode in the concept of the Apology. These suspicions are further confirmed when bearing in mind that this episode has no real connection either to the previously reported events, or to the following prophecy about the end of the son of Anytos.

If Xenophon had not introduced this episode at this point, their absence would have been of no consequence to the overall structure of the Apology. And for good reason. Even though he does not speak to Socrates himself, it can be assumed that Xenophon ascribed these words to Apollodorus in the Apology while telling an episode that could have immediately occurred before the execution. In this respect, the episode highlights the accuracy of the scene at the deathbed of Socrates as represented by Plato.

L Apologie de Socrate : Platon :

But it is doubtful whether this is an authentic version of that scene, since Plato recalls a very similar incident in the Phaedo. There Phaedo tells Echecrates about the conspicuous behavior of Socrates during his last hours Phaedo 89a9-b4 :. Yet, one should bear in mind that Plato, in contrast to Xenophon, consciously included this short episode in his narrative. In Xenophon this episode is not connected either with the preceding or following events.


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This constitutes a clear contrast to Plato, where it is completely integrated in the structure of his writing. It also indicates that Plato and not Xenophon should be regarded as the creator of this fictional scene Indeed Xenophon obviously intended his working method to create a new form of Socratic literature, and did so in quite a free manner He did not create a bad copy of the alleged original, but rather a work that represents in this specific case a psychological complement to the other existing logoi Sokratikoi.

Barigazzi A. Introduzione, testo critico e commento , Firenze, Felice Le Monnier Testi greci e latini con commento filologico ; 4. Bleicken J. Brandwood L. Breitenbach H. Brisson L. Riletto Critone. Adesso torneremo a Kafka Davanti alla legge sta un guardiano. Un uomo di campagna viene da questo guardiano e gli chiede il permesso di accedere all Riletto Critone. Un uomo di campagna viene da questo guardiano e gli chiede il permesso di accedere alla legge View 1 comment.

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Questa profezia sia il mio congedo da voi, che mi avete votato contro [ Sin embargo, todos temen como si se supiera de cierto que es el mayor mal de los males. Creo que hay una diferencia esencial que no se tiene en cuenta, hay quien tiene miedo a la muerte por razones como el dolor, el sufrimiento Pero no necesariamente porque crean que encierra el mayor mal de todos los males.

Los valores que abolen los instintos que son la naturaleza. View all 3 comments. Read this for a class. Went into it thinking it was going to suck the soul out of me, happy to say my soul is very much intact, and that I enjoyed this. Motherfucker deconstructed everything they put in his way, and when they decided to off him, he reasoned a happy ending for himself. Lessons in positivity lol.

Socrate, Platon et Aristote

Actual rating 3. The writing is very clinical but not in a negative way. I Think our social today sometime have the same situation with Socrates life more than thousands years ago. If you have enough wisdom, you will know what you need to do next! But as it is, since they are two human beings, w I Think our social today sometime have the same situation with Socrates life more than thousands years ago. But as it is, since they are two human beings, whom do you have in mind to get as an overseer 20 for the two of them? If you fight in battle with the enemy.

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You will hear to the commander of the army or listen to the commander of your parents or your friends, who have nothing talent on that major! It is a worthwhile thought in today's social life before the decision of every individual. More than centuries ago, Socrates has come to the realization of this truth.

So Wisdom and a scholar of all times. De modo algum. Mais do que permanecer vivo, cumpre ser justo. Feb 19, Ahmed Amine rated it really liked it. Oct 27, Senes added it Shelves: livres. Shipping to: Worldwide. No additional import charges at delivery!

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